Evaluation of floodwater loading on domestic housing

Samuel Kail

Abstract


Floodwater pressure on domestic housing can cause damage or collapse. With the increased use of property level protection, more property owners are taking actions to limit water ingress at the cost of increased floodwater pressure differential on property walls. Currently CIRIA and the Environment Agency advise that properties should be protected up to a maximum of 0.6m (CIRIA, 2007). This protection height is currently used in industry as the standard protection height in property level protection schemes. The general consensus from sources referenced in a literature review was that most domestic properties are capable of supporting 0.6 meters of flood water, but any higher than this and inspection should be carried out by a qualified building surveyor, architect or structural engineer (ODPM, 2003). This study analysed a number of characteristics for a masonry wall panel, 4 meters wide and 2.5 meters high, incorporating an inner and outer leaf both 100mm thick. The analytical methods utilised were yield line analysis, finite element modelling and the design moment of resistance equation, which were conducted with the aim of arbitrating whether the current industry standard protection height of 0.6m is appropriate. The panel analysed was deemed suited to resisting loading from a static 0.6m head of water, providing the panel is in a condition which would not compromise the design flexural strength or material factor; and there are no large openings protected with property level protection barriers, which demonstrated an increase in maximum bending moment. In the presence of hydrodynamic loading, the wall panel was deemed suited to a protection height of 0.6m providing the velocity component orthogonal to the panel is less than 0.03m/s. The panel was deemed suitable within these limits because the panel section modulus, width, support conditions and vertical loading are all within the relevant ULS identified. However, areas have been identified for further study, including study of further yield line patterns outside of the scope of this study, in order to increase the confidence in this arbitration. It was found that the current industry standard protection height of 0.6m would not be appropriate for all properties however, due to the huge variety in masonry panel characteristics. The results from this study can be used in the design of future domestic properties at risk of flooding, as well as in the protection of existing properties at risk of flooding.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Auld, D. J. and Srinivas K. (2005) Drag Coefficient. Available at: http://www-mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/fprops/introvisc/node11.html (Accessed: 4 January 2015).

Bhatt, P. et al. (2014) Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocodes: Design Theory and Examples (4th edn.). London: Taylor and Francis.

British Standards Institution (BSI), 1997. BS 8110-1: Structural use of concrete- Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. London: BSI.

California Department of Water Resources n.d. Protect Your Property. [image online] Available at: http://www.water.ca.gov/floodmgmt/lrafmo/fmb/fas/risknotification/links/pdfs/Protect_Your_Property.pdf?ContentID=13 (Accessed 2 November 2015).

Caprani, C. (2006). Analysis and Design of Slabs. Available at: http://www.colincaprani.com/files/notes/CED1/Design%20and%20Analysis%20of%20Slabs.pdf (Accessed: 8 October 2015).

Caprani, C. (2015). Masonry Design. Available at: http://www.colincaprani.com/files/notes/CED1/Masonry%20Notes.pdf (Accessed: 3 December 2015).

Chong, V. L. (1993) The Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Masonry Panel with Openings. Plymouth University: Unpublished.

CIRIA (2007) Improving the flood performance of new buildings. London: RIBA.

Cobb, F. (2014) Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book (3rd edn.). London: Taylor and Francis.

Cuomo, G. et al. (2008) ‘Hydrodynamic Loadings of Buildings in Floods’, Coastal Engineering, 31, pp. 3744-3756.

Davison, B. and Owens, G. (2012) Steel Designers’ Manual (7th edn.). Ascot: Steel Construction Institute.

Dawes, M. 2011. Flood Wall River Ouse at Selby. [image online] Available at: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2627791 (Accessed 2 November 2015).

Flood Wall n.d. Floodfix Patio Door. [image online] Available at: http://www.floodwall.plus.com/Range/Standard_Barriers/a_floodfix_patio_door_white_50.jpg (Accessed: 2 November 2015).

Goodchild, C and Kennedy, G. (2003) Practical Yield Line Design. Surry: Reinforced Concrete Council.

Hamill, L. (2011) Understanding Hydraulics (3rd edn.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Kelman, I. (2000) Coastal Settlement as Risk: Flood Vulnerability of Residential Properties in England. [image online] Available at: http://www.ilankelman.org/phd.html (Accessed: 22 March 2015).

Kelman, I. (2002) Physical Flood Vulnerability of Residential Properties in Coastal, Eastern England. Cambridge University: Unpublished.

Kelman, I and Spence, R. (2003) ‘A Limit Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry Failing Under Flood Water Pressures’, Masonry International, Vol 16 (No 2), 1-11.

Lau, C. (1992) Neural Networks. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).

Morton, J. (1985) The design of laterally loaded walls. London: Brick Development Association.

ODPM (2003) Preparing for Floods. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.

Rafiq, Y., n.d. Deep Beam & Shear Wall with Opening, STAD505 Advanced Structural Engineering [online via internal VLE], Plymouth University. Accessible through Plymouth University DLE. [4 October 2015].

Reynolds, Charles E.; Threlfall, Anthony J. and Steedman, James C. (2008) Reynolds’s Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook (11th edn.). Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis.

Roberts, J. J. and Brooker, O. (2013a) How to design masonry structures using Eurocode 6: 1. Introduction to Eurocode 6. Surry: The Concrete Centre.

Roberts, J. J. and Brooker, O. (2013b) How to design masonry structures using Eurocode 6: 3. Lateral resistance. Surry: The Concrete Centre.

Stormguard 2015. Flood Barrier protecting large patio doors from flood water. [image online] Available at: http://stormguardfloodplan.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Flood-Barriers-protecting-large-patio-doors-from-flood-water5474677c1f458-1024x576.jpg (Accessed 2 November 2015).

Suresh, S. et al. (2008) Supplementary note on flood hazard ratings and thresholds for development planning and control purpose. Available at: http://evidence.environment-agency.gov.uk/FCERM/Libraries/FCERM_Project_Documents/FD2321_7400_PR_pdf.sflb.ashx (Accessed: 20 October 2015).

UK Flood Barriers Ltd. (2015) UK Flood Barriers profile our extensive work in 2013. [image online] Available at: http://www.ukfloodbarriers.co.uk/media.aspx?b=76 (Accessed: 25 August 2015).

USACE (1988) Tests of Materials and Systems for Flood Proofing Structures. Washington D.C., USA: USACE (US Army Corps of Engineers).

Wasserman, P. D (1989) Neural Computing: Theory and Practice. London: Van Nostrand Reinhold International Company Limited.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License 
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

ISSN 1754-2383 [Online] ©University of Plymouth